Heidegger's former lover Arendt spoke on his behalf at this hearing, while Jaspers spoke against him. One consequence of this teaching ban was that Heidegger began to engage far more in the French philosophical scene. In his postwar thinking, Heidegger distanced himself from Nazism, but his critical comments about Nazism seem "scandalous" to some since they tend to equate the Nazi war atrocities with other inhumane practices related to rationalisation and industrialisation , including the treatment of animals by factory farming.
For instance in a lecture delivered at Bremen in , Heidegger said: "Agriculture is now a motorized food industry, the same thing in its essence as the production of corpses in the gas chambers and the extermination camps, the same thing as blockades and the reduction of countries to famine, the same thing as the manufacture of hydrogen bombs. In Heidegger met with the Jewish poet Paul Celan , a concentration camp survivor. Celan visited Heidegger at his country retreat and wrote an enigmatic poem about the meeting, which some interpret as Celan's wish for Heidegger to apologize for his behavior during the Nazi era.
On 23 September , Heidegger was interviewed by Rudolf Augstein and Georg Wolff for Der Spiegel magazine, in which he agreed to discuss his political past provided that the interview be published posthumously. It was published five days after his death, on 31 May Second, he admitted that he saw an "awakening" Aufbruch which might help to find a "new national and social approach," but said that he changed his mind about this in , largely prompted by the violence of the Night of the Long Knives.
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In his interview Heidegger defended as double-speak his lecture describing the "inner truth and greatness of this movement. However, Heidegger asserted that his dedicated students would know this statement was no eulogy for the Nazi Party. Rather, he meant it as he expressed it in the parenthetical clarification later added to Introduction to Metaphysics , namely, "the confrontation of planetary technology and modern humanity. The Der Spiegel interviewers did not bring up Heidegger's quotation comparing the industrialization of agriculture to the extermination camps.
In fact, the interviewers were not in possession of much of the evidence now known for Heidegger's Nazi sympathies. Heidegger was one of the most influential philosophers of the 20th century, and his ideas have penetrated into many areas, but in France there is a very long and particular history of reading and interpreting his work which in itself resulted in deepening the impact of his thought in Continental Philosophy.
Heidegger's influence on French philosophy began in the s, when Being and Time , "What is Metaphysics? The influence of Heidegger on Sartre's Being and Nothingness is marked, but Heidegger felt that Sartre had misread his work, as he argued in later texts such as the " Letter on Humanism ". In that text, intended for a French audience, Heidegger explained this misreading in the following terms:.
Sartre's key proposition about the priority of existentia over essentia [that is, Sartre's statement that "existence precedes essence"] does, however, justify using the name "existentialism" as an appropriate title for a philosophy of this sort. But the basic tenet of "existentialism" has nothing at all in common with the statement from Being and Time [that "the 'essence' of Dasein lies in its existence"]—apart from the fact that in Being and Time no statement about the relation of essentia and existentia can yet be expressed, since there it is still a question of preparing something precursory.
Aside from merely disputing readings of his own work, however, in the "Letter on Humanism" Heidegger asserts that "Every humanism is either grounded in a metaphysics or is itself made to be the ground of one. After the war, Heidegger was banned from university teaching for a period on account of his support of Nazism while serving as Rector of Freiburg University. Deconstruction came to Heidegger's attention in by way of Lucien Braun's recommendation of Jacques Derrida 's work Hans-Georg Gadamer was present at an initial discussion and indicated to Heidegger that Derrida's work came to his attention by way of an assistant.
Heidegger expressed interest in meeting Derrida personally after the latter sent him some of his work.
There was discussion of a meeting in , but this failed to take place. Braun also brought to Heidegger's attention the work of Michel Foucault. Foucault's relation to Heidegger is a matter of considerable difficulty; Foucault acknowledged Heidegger as a philosopher whom he read but never wrote about. Derrida attempted to displace the understanding of Heidegger's work that had been prevalent in France from the period of the ban against Heidegger teaching in German universities, which amounted to an almost wholesale rejection of the influence of Jean-Paul Sartre and existentialist terms.
According to Derrida, Sartre's interpretation of Dasein and other key Heideggerian concerns is overly psychologistic, anthropocentric, and misses the historicality central to Dasein in Being and Time. These debates included the question of whether it was possible to do without Heidegger's philosophy, a position which Derrida in particular rejected. More recently, Heidegger's thought has influenced the work of the French philosopher Bernard Stiegler.
This is evident even from the title of Stiegler's multi-volume magnum opus , La technique et le temps volume one translated into English as Technics and Time, 1: The Fault of Epimetheus. Stiegler understands the existential analytic of Being and Time as an account of psychic individuation , and his later "history of being" as an account of collective individuation.
He understands many of the problems of Heidegger's philosophy and politics as the consequence of Heidegger's inability to integrate the two. Heidegger has been very influential on the work of the Italian philosopher Giorgio Agamben. Agamben attended seminars in France led by Heidegger in the late s. Heidegger's influence upon 20th century continental philosophy is unquestioned and has produced a variety of critical responses. According to Husserl, Being and Time claimed to deal with ontology but only did so in the first few pages of the book.
Having nothing further to contribute to an ontology independent of human existence, Heidegger changed the topic to Dasein. Whereas Heidegger argued that the question of human existence is central to the pursuit of the question of being, Husserl criticized this as reducing phenomenology to "philosophical anthropology" and offering an abstract and incorrect portrait of the human being. The Neo-Kantian Ernst Cassirer and Heidegger engaged in an influential debate located in Davos in , concerning the significance of Kantian notions of freedom and rationality see Cassirer—Heidegger debate.
Whereas Cassirer defended the role of rationality in Kant , Heidegger argued for the priority of the imagination. Stuttgart Initially members of the Frankfurt School were positively disposed to Heidegger, becoming more critical at the beginning of the s. Heidegger's student Herbert Marcuse became associated with the Frankfurt School. Initially striving for a synthesis between Hegelian Marxism and Heidegger's phenomenology, Marcuse later rejected Heidegger's thought for its "false concreteness" and "revolutionary conservativism.
Contemporary social theorists associated with the Frankfurt School have remained largely critical of Heidegger's works and influence. However, work by philosopher and critical theorist Nikolas Kompridis tries to show that Heidegger's insights into world disclosure are badly misunderstood and mishandled by Habermas, and are of vital importance for critical theory, offering an important way of renewing that tradition. Criticism of Heidegger's philosophy has also come from analytic philosophy , beginning with logical positivism. In "The Elimination of Metaphysics Through Logical Analysis of Language" , Rudolf Carnap accused Heidegger of offering an "illusory" ontology, criticizing him for committing the fallacy of reification and for wrongly dismissing the logical treatment of language which, according to Carnap, can only lead to writing "nonsensical pseudo-propositions.
The British logical positivist A. Ayer was strongly critical of Heidegger's philosophy. In Ayer's view, Heidegger proposed vast, overarching theories regarding existence, which are completely unverifiable through empirical demonstration and logical analysis. For Ayer, this sort of philosophy was a poisonous strain in modern thought. He considered Heidegger to be the worst example of such philosophy, which Ayer believed to be entirely useless.
Bertrand Russell considered Heidegger an obscurantist , writing,. Highly eccentric in its terminology, his philosophy is extremely obscure. One cannot help suspecting that language is here running riot. An interesting point in his speculations is the insistence that nothingness is something positive. As with much else in Existentialism, this is a psychological observation made to pass for logic. This quote expresses the sentiments of many 20th-century analytic philosophers concerning Heidegger. Roger Scruton stated that: "His major work Being and Time is formidably difficult—unless it is utter nonsense, in which case it is laughably easy.
I am not sure how to judge it, and have read no commentator who even begins to make sense of it". The analytic tradition values clarity of expression. Heidegger, however, has on occasion appeared to take an opposing view, stating for example:. Making itself intelligible is suicide for philosophy. Those who idolize "facts" never notice that their idols only shine in a borrowed light.
They are also meant not to notice this; for thereupon they would have to be at a loss and therefore useless. But idolizers and idols are used wherever gods are in flight and so announce their nearness. Apart from the charge of obscurantism , other analytic philosophers considered the actual content of Heidegger's work to be either faulty and meaningless, vapid or uninteresting.
However, not all analytic philosophers have been as hostile. Gilbert Ryle wrote a critical yet positive review of Being and Time. Ludwig Wittgenstein made a remark recorded by Friedrich Waismann : "To be sure, I can imagine what Heidegger means by being and anxiety"  which has been construed by some commentators  as sympathetic to Heidegger's philosophical approach.
These positive and negative analytic evaluations have been collected in Michael Murray ed. Heidegger's reputation within English-language philosophy has slightly improved in philosophical terms in some part through the efforts of Hubert Dreyfus , Richard Rorty , and a recent generation of analytically oriented phenomenology scholars. Pragmatist Rorty claimed that Heidegger's approach to philosophy in the first half of his career has much in common with that of the latter-day Ludwig Wittgenstein.
Nevertheless, Rorty asserted that what Heidegger had constructed in his writings was a myth of being rather than an account of it. The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy states that Heidegger's writing is "notoriously difficult", possibly because his thinking was "original" and clearly on obscure and innovative topics.
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Although Heidegger is considered by many observers to be one of the most influential philosophers of the 20th century,  aspects of his work have been criticised by those who nevertheless acknowledge this influence, such as Hans-Georg Gadamer and Jacques Derrida. Some questions raised about Heidegger's philosophy include the priority of ontology, the status of animals, the nature of the religious, Heidegger's supposed neglect of ethics Levinas , the body Maurice Merleau-Ponty , sexual difference Luce Irigaray , or space Peter Sloterdijk.
Levinas was deeply influenced by Heidegger, and yet became one of his fiercest critics, contrasting the infinity of the good beyond being with the immanence and totality of ontology. Levinas also condemned Heidegger's involvement with National Socialism, stating: "One can forgive many Germans, but there are some Germans it is difficult to forgive. It is difficult to forgive Heidegger. Heidegger's defenders, notably Arendt, see his support for Nazism as arguably a personal " 'error' " a word which Arendt placed in quotation marks when referring to Heidegger's Nazi-era politics.
Heidegger's collected works are published by Vittorio Klostermann. He defined the order of publication and dictated that the principle of editing should be "ways not works. The contents are listed here: Heidegger Gesamtausgabe.
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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. German philosopher. For other uses, see Heidegger disambiguation. Freiburg im Breisgau , West Germany.
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Die Lehre vom Urteil im Psychologismus. Heideggerian terminology Dasein Gestell Ontotheology Ontological difference Ontologische Differenz Existentials Existenzialien Ekstase Sigetics Sigetik Hermeneutic circle Aletheia Disclosure Fundamental ontology Forgetfulness of Being Seinsvergessenheit Dwelling Wohnen Language as the vehicle through which the question of Being can be unfolded  " Language speaks " Art's ability to set up a strife between "world" and "earth" .
This section may be confusing or unclear to readers. In particular, the language is obfuscatory and the logical sequence between one sentence and the next is obscure throughout. Please help us clarify the section. There might be a discussion about this on the talk page. September Learn how and when to remove this template message. Main article: Being and Time.
See also: Kehre.
Main article: Heidegger and Nazism. Candler eds.